Ok so you gave me most of the facts I need to know, but here's a couple of other questions.
1- At what age was he neutered?
2- How often does he get out for walks?
3- Does he get any off leash time?
4- Does he play tug and or fetch?
5- Does he guard food, toys, bones or any other resources from you? other animals?
6- Where does he sleep?
7- Is he cuddly with you? Sit on your lap alot?
8- Does he react more to people when you're holding him or he's on the floor?
9- How and what do you feed him?
10- Are you willing to buy books to learn how to deal with him?
11- Are you knowledgeable about clickertraining? Are you willing to give Clickertraining a shot?
12- How long is he alone in a day?
13- Are you willing to restrict his access to parts of the house?
14- How much time do you spend playing with him in a day?
ok enough questions, here's a bit of what I see from your post.
He sounds frustrated, and used to getting what he wants, when he wants it. He seems stressed and somewhat anxious. I'm guessing he has free access to all his toys and possibly his food as well as you, he is allowed wherever he wants, whenever he wants.
Here's several things you should do to get him back on track, I can give you more advice and details after you answer my 150 questions LOL
First off: handfeeding. Put his daily allotment of food in several containers around the house. Then periodically go to one, and call him, if he comes to you, give him a piece of food, then ask for a sit, if he doesn't know how to sit, you can begin training the sit, (preferably using clicker training). Once that container is gone, go about your business, until you want to give him another container. repeat as often as there are containers of food, per day. WARNING: Make sure he is only getting enough food that he will not get fat, Extra weight on a Dachshund is EXTREMELY bad for them.
You can use this handfeeding regime to train him tricks or obedience, you can teach him down, roll over, shake a paw, heel, weave between your legs, the sky is the limit. I'm guessing that after a couple of weeks of handfeeding, you will see a marked improvement in his disposition!
Second bit of advice: Remove all toys from his reach. He is now only allowed to play with you when you want to play. Play tug with him, it's a fantastic game to help him release predatory frustration. Make sure that there are rules to the game though. You need to teach him to release the toy on command, always end the game if his teeth touch any part of you, and only you can begin the game, using a cue, like "take it" Get down on the floor and play with him 5-10 or more times a day, the more often, the better. Playing fetch is also a huge release of frustration, and it's great exercise. and a tired dog is a good dog. Teach him to play hide and seek. Put him in a room, then go hide a favorite treat or toy, let him out of the room then give him a cue ("find it") Then lead him to the reward. Once he's found the toy, or consumed the treat, play a game with him for a minute or 2, then put him away again, and hide the same object or another treat, and go at it again... do 2 or 3 searches per session. back off your help once he seems to understand the game.
Third tidbit: give him things to do when left alone. Hide old socks with treats knotted in, hide kongs stuffed with peanut butter, or anything else he likes, Hide a chew toy or 2, hide a couple of his favorite toys, you can buy toys that you put food into and they have to work at it to get the food out, if he's got fun things to do when you're not home, he wont destroy things or bark and disturb the neighbours. Hide 10 - 20 items around the house for him.
And my last bit of advice for this morning, take him for long walks, preferably where he can freely interact with other dogs off leash, let him be a dog for awhile.
You'll notice that I did not once say to correct him... DO NOT CORRECT HIM FOR REACTING! Prevent him from reacting, but do not even say no if he does react to something... this will only serve to make him more suspicious of strangers ("the last time I saw a stranger, I got attacked by my owner, so I need to make sure the people stay even further away!") Dont force him to be around people, give him a choice. If he's barking at someone, move him away from that person until he feels more comfortable, and reward him for a stop in reaction. Distract him from people, play with him, or have fun filled training sessions around people, so he gets used to having fun when strangers are nearby.
I hope you will answer my questions, so I can help more.
Here's some books that will help you, if you are so inclined to get them.
"Reaching The Animal Mind" By Karen Pryor, it's a book about Clicker training and is invaluable
"Click to Calm: Healing the Aggressive Dog" By Emma Parsons
"The Dog Vinci Code" by John Rogerson a FANTASTIC book about dog behaviour, and addresses your problems to a tee.
"The Culture Clash" by Jean Donaldson another great read!
I hope this is of some help to you!