Color-Pattern genetic basics
Hope this helps in understanding the basics
Red (black nosed) is dominant. Chocolate, black, dilute, and cream are all recessive, therefore can be carried. You cannot get a
dominant red from 2 blacks, chocolates, dilutes, or creams being bred together. Dominant red cannot be carried it must be red
to produce red, much like dapple, brindle, and wire.
2 black and tans can produce chocolates, dilutes, and pointed creams.
However, 2 chocolates could only produce chocolates, Isabella's, e-reds (whole 'nother ball of wax :lol
, and chocolate
creams and on the rare occasion Isabella creams.
Longhairs can't carry smooth or wire.
Smooths can carry longhair, but cannot carry wire.
Wire can carry smooth and longhair.
Genetics is a struggle and partly because the way we use the language.
For each trait, a dog has a pair of genes, one donated by each parent.
A dominant trait is manifested if present in only one of the genes.
A recessive trait is manifested only if present in each gene of the pair.
For Coat type the Hierarchy goes like this:
(W)ire Absolutely Dominant
(S)mooth Dominant only to Long
(L)ong Recessive to Wire or Smooth
Dogs with a twin pair ( W/W, S/S, L/L ) can only offer their own coat type to any progeny.
Since (W) is absolutely dominant, a W/W dog will only produce wires irrespective of what their mate offers.
Canada, the UK and other kennel clubs dis-allow cross-breeding of Coat types.
Two W/S dogs could produce smooth puppies. Smooth is recessive only in the presence of the Wire gene.
A W/S dog and a W/L dog could produce a S/L pair of genes, in other words, a Smooth puppy.
Two W/L dogs could likewise produce longhair pups.
Wire breeders (show) have a difficult time setting a uniform and correct coat because of the issues of incomplete dominance and the
recessive nature of the other coat types.
Piebald can be carried, but one parent must be brindled or dappled to have dapple or brindled puppies.
When a double dapple is bred to a solid all the pups will be dappled.
If you breed 2 piebalds together you will get all piebalds, but that is not the case with brindles and dapples.
Recessive is a gene that is only inherited from both parents. Recessive genes can be carried.
Dominant is a gene that is inherited from only one parent. Dominant genes cannot be carried.